FÀKAN

Bamanankan bɛ tɔgɔ Da miiriya kura la cogo min na n'a yɛrɛ kɔnɔminɛnw ye

Bamanankan bɛ kankabila min fɛ o bɛ Weele kandɔnnaw fɛ ko Nizɛr-kɔngo. Josɛf Grinnbɛrg (1963) ka ɲininiw y'o Jira an na. O cɛ kelen in ka farafinnakanw danfarali ɲininiw sen fɛ fana, o ye tlayɔrɔ wɛrɛw Ye kankabilaw kɔnɔ minnu na Mandenkan kankulu ye Nizɛr-kɔngo kankabila kɔnɔkankulu dɔ ye. An ka bi jɛkafɔ bɛ na Boli kan min kan, Bamanankan, o ye Mandenkan kankulu kan dɔ ye min bɛ Fɔ Mali kɔnɔ. O kankulu in kɔnɔkan tɔw ye julakan ye (Burkina Faso ani kɔdiwari), Maninkakan (Mali ani Laginɛ) Mandingo (Ganbi), Mɛnde (Saralɔn), (bulletin ACALAN B°4) ɲuman na.

I. Kan ni miiriya kura tɔgɔda-fɛɛrɛw

An bɛ tle min na i ko bi, dɔnniya warali bɛ ka Walankata ka t'a fɛ. Miiriya minnu bɛ dɔnniya kɔnɔ olu tɔgɔko ye kamanaganko ye kan bɛɛ la. O kamanagan in sɔn ka nɔgɔ kan dɔw la ka sago dɔw kan. Farafinnakanw bɛ kɔ fɛ o tɔgɔko in na kosɛbɛ. Mali kanw na, bamanankan ye kan ye min fana ma Lafa ni miiriya kuraw daɲɛw ye walasa a mɛnbaaw ka dɔnniya nanamasumalen Sɔrɔ a kɔnɔ.

N'an ye minɛ Kɛ Marsɛl Diki-kidiri ka gafe bɔlen ɲɛ 71-75 na ma, an b'a Ye ko fɛɛrɛ caman bɛ yen kan b'i wasa Don minnu na ka tɔgɔ Da miiriya kuraw la. O fɛɛrɛ dɔw Flɛ: dorokoli, bɔnna, Kɔrɔlafa, Kanhakɛ-karaba, siyayɛlɛma, tɔgɔkaraba ani daɲɛsinga. Nin fɛɛrɛw la, an bɛ sugandili Kɛ k'an ka masala Koron dɔɔnin. An ka sugandili Bɛnna dorokoli fɛɛrɛ ma n'an bɛ n'an da Don o la ka dɔ Fɔ o kan bamanankan na.

1. Dorokoli

Dorokoli Лɛfɔra Introduction à la lexicologie, sémantique et morphologie (2008, ɲ.217) kɔnɔ Aliz Lehmann ani Franswaz Martɛn-Bɛrtɛ fɛ tan: "la composition consiste à former un mot en assemblant deux ou plusieurs mots" - dorokoli ye daɲɛ kelen dlali ye ni daɲɛ kelen wali daɲɛ caman farali ye ɲɔgɔn kan. Ni dorokoli Bolila daɲɛ minnu kan, a bɛ daɲɛ min Di o bɛ Weele ko daɲɛ dorokolen. David Cristal ka gafe sɛbɛnnen The Cambridge's Encyclopedia of the English Language (1994, ɲ.129) ye daɲɛ dorokolen Лɛfɔ k'a Kɛ nin ye: "a compound is a unit of vocabulary which consists of more than one lexical stem" - daɲɛ dorokolen ye daɲɛ ye min kɔnɔ-kumaden ka ca ni daɲɛ-kumaden kelen ye. Bamanankan sariyasun (1997, ɲ.46) fana bɛ daɲɛ dorokolen Лɛfɔ nin cogo in na tan: "daɲɛ dorokolen ye daɲɛ fla wali damadɔ kafolen ye ɲɔgɔn na ka daɲɛ kura Bange".

Dorokoli ye daɲɛ-dlacogo barikamaba ye bamanankan na. Лininiw y'a Jira an na ko bamanankan gafe duuru o duuru, minnu daɲɛ mumɛ bɛ t'i Jɔ 93 975 la, ko daɲɛ 9,478% ye dorokolenw ye ninka 4,115% Kɛ bɔnnaw ye (kalanfoori-sɛbɛn, Isiyaka Baalo, 2012).

A. Daɲɛ dorokocogo

Daɲɛ dorokolen kɔnɔ daɲɛ-kumaden bɛ Dabɔ fla la ka Se Fɔ tan ani kɔ ma bamanankan na.

Misali:

daɲɛ dorokolen kumaden flama

dugutigi (Ng.B, ɲ...) = dugu + tigi

kɛlɛmasa (Ŋ.T, ɲ...) = kɛlɛ + masa

sanudaba (W.S, ɲ...) = sanu + daba

daɲɛ dorokolen kumaden sabama

dugujɛkan (Ŋ.T, ɲ...) = dugu + jɛ + kan

sigiyɔrɔyɛlɛma (W.S, ɲ...) = sigi + yɔrɔ + yɛlɛma

Finikominɛn (C.B, ɲ...) = fini + ko + minɛn

daɲɛ dorokolen kumaden naanima

maakuntigɛmuru (Ŋ.T, ɲ.10) = maa + kun + tigɛ + muru

musokɔrɔsigiyɔrɔ (Ŋ.T, ɲ.82) = muso + kɔrɔ + sigi + yɔrɔ

sofakuntigi (W.S, ɲ.31) = so + fa + kun + tigi

daɲɛ dorokolen kumaden seeginma

misimusokunkolojeniyɔrɔbarokan (jama) = misi + muso + kun + kolo + jeni + yɔrɔ + baro + kan.

B. Daɲɛ dorokolen kumadenw tɔgɔko

Daɲɛ dorokolen kumadenw nacogo ɲɔgɔn kɔ bɛ na ni danfara donni ye u ɲɛci la daɲɛ kɔnɔ. Лɛci fla ɲɔgɔn b'u Danfara ka Bɔ ɲɔgɔn ma. Kumaden kelen bɛ miiriya tɔgɔ bakuuruba jɔyɔrɔ Fa ninka kelentɔ Kɛ ka miiriya danfarali jɔyɔrɔ Fa. A ɲɛci flaw taalan ye ɲɔgɔn ye. O la, kumaden sugu fla minnu bɛ Kɛ daɲɛ dorokolenw kɔnɔ jɔyɔrɔko siratigɛ la o ye bakuurutɔgɔ ni danfaratɔgɔ ye. Gafe min tɔgɔ ye ko Bamanankan mabɛn (2006, ɲ.131) kɔnɔ, a Fɔra bakuurutɔgɔ ma ko daɲɛ dorokolen nimayɔrɔ.

Misali:

hɔrɔnmuso = hɔrɔn (danfaratɔgɔ) + muso (bakuurutɔgɔ) muso bɛɛ ye muso ye nka muso bɛɛ tɛ hɔrɔnmuso ye, bari baramuso ni furumuso bɛ yen barri furumuso bɛ yen

dugutigi = dugu (danfaratɔgɔ) + tigi (bakuurutɔgɔ) tigi bɛɛ ye tigi ye nka tigi bɛɛ tɛ dugutigi ye bari waritigi bɛ yen

siigiyɔrɔ = sigi (danfaratɔgɔ) + yɔrɔ (bakuurutɔgɔ) yɔrɔ bɛɛ ye yɔrɔ ye nka yɔrɔ bɛɛ tɛ sigiyɔrɔ ye, bari dayɔrɔ ni jɔyɔrɔ bɛ yen.

C. Daɲɛ dorokolen bɔcogo ɲɔgɔn da fɛ

An b'aw Ladɔnniya ko daɲɛw dorokocogo sariya ye tɔgɔ jɔnjɔn blali ye daɲɛ laban na bamanankan na.

Misali: dibisogo ani sogodibi kan tɛ fɛn kelen ma. A daɲɛ fla bɛɛ kɔnɔ-kumadenw ye fla-fla ye wa kumaden kelen minnu bɛ fɔlɔ kɔnɔ o kelenw de bɛ flanan kɔnɔ. A kumadenw sigicogo ka Fɔ ɲɔgɔn kɔ o kɔni tɛ kelen ye. Dibisogo ye sogo dɔ tɔgɔ ye ninka sogodibi Kɛ dibi dɔ tɔgɔ ye. I b'a Ye nin misaliw la ko kumaden labanw de ye kuma kan bɛ min ma ye.

Misali:

serimalo (malo sugu dɔ)

maloseri (seri sugu dɔ)

ɲɔmugu (mugu sugu dɔ)

muguɲɔ (ɲɔ sugu dɔ)

sonɛgɛ (nɛgɛ sugu dɔ)

nɛgɛso (so sugu dɔ)

Dorokolen dɔw kumaden fɔlɔ Ye kuma kan bɛ min ma ye: jakumawara, sanuhɔrɔn…

D. Daɲɛ tonnen

O Ye daɲεjuru ye min fla walima caman bɛ Fɔ ka fɛn kelen Kofɔ k’a sɔrɔ u tɛ Sɛbɛn ka Nɔrɔ ɲɔgɔn na u kanhakɛ cogoya fɛ. N’i y’u Sɛbɛn k’u Nɔrɔ o dorokolen bɛ fɛn wɛrɛ Kofɔ min ni u dorokobali kɔrɔ tɛ kelen ye. N’i y’a fan kelen Fɔ k’a tɔ To o tɛ a bɛɛ fɔli ɲɔgɔn fɛ kɔrɔ Jira.

Misali :

Daɲɛ tonnen

ɲɛfɔli

Daɲɛ dorokolen

ɲɛfɔli

1

Daba kala

jirisun

Dabakala

minɛnan min bɛ Don bololadaba la

2

Tu misi

Sogo min ni misi bɔlen don ɲɔgɔn fɛ ni a baguyɔrɔ ye kungo dɔrɔn ye

Tumisi

Kɔrɔntan

3

Kungo fali

Sogo min ni fali bɔlen don ɲɔgɔn fɛ ni a baguyɔrɔ ye kungo dɔrɔn ye

Kungofali

Kɔrɔntan

4

Nɛgɛ sotigi

Kɔmɔko jɔyɔrɔtigi dɔ

Nɛgɛsotigi

Nɛgɛso bɛ mɔgɔ min fɛ walima nɛgɛso bɛ mɔgɔ min bolo ka tɛmɛ

5

Ntori tɛgɛ

Nɔgɔ tɛ kuma min na f’a jɛlen don

Ntoritɛgɛ

Kɔrɔntan

6

Baninkɔnɔ ka tiga

Bin min bulu ni tiga ta bɔlen don

Baninkɔnɔkatiga

Kɔrɔntan

7

Fali da

Cyɛn gɛlɛn

Falida

Kɔrɔntan

8

So ju

So jɔli bɛ sinsin a dugumana kologirin min kan

Soju

Donni bɛ Kɛ soden min kɔnɔ ka sɔrɔ ka taa dɔwɛrɛ min kɔnɔ laban na : soɲɛ

9

Ntori sigilan

Fara fasaman kologirin min bɛ nugu ka bɔ jiri dɔw ju fɛ k’a patara i ko npyena jirifaralama

Ntorisigilan

Kɔrɔntan

10

Ji so

Jikɔnɔsogo dɔ bisigi la min ni so bɔlen don

Jiso

Kɔrɔntan

 

E. Daɲɛ dorokolen kɔrɔdɔn

Daɲɛ dorokolenw bɛ Don kɔrɔ minɛn minnu kɔnɔ k'u Suma ka Bɛn miiriya ma olu bɛ Walawala an fɛ yan. O minɛn ninnu bɛ i ko muulu n'i bɛ miiriya tɔgɔda-sababuw don a kɔnɔ i ko bɔgɔ kɛnɛ bɛ Don tufabɔnnan kɔnɔ cogo min na. Bɔgɔ tufaden bɔlen bɛ Kɛ ka sow Jɔ cogo min na, miiriya kura minɛnw donnen tɔgɔdon-minɛn kɔnɔ o bɛ tɔgɔ ɲumanw Dla minnu bɛ Bɛn u miiriyaw weeletɔgɔ hakika ma. An bɛ daɲɛ dorokolen kelen pe Ta k'o tɔgɔdon-minɛn Jira walasa an bɛ Tɛmɛ n'o fɛɛrɛ kelenw ye ko kuraw tɔgɔ dali la. O daɲɛ tɔmɔnen Bɛnna misidaba ma.

An bɛ ɲininkali Kɛ misidaba tɔgɔ Dara o minɛn kura in na cogo di? Yala n'a Fɔra mɔgɔ min ye ko misidaba hali ni a ma Deli ka minɛn in Ye a ɲɛ na a b'a Faamu wa? Yala ni mɔgɔ min ye o minɛn ɲɔgɔn dɔ Ye a bɛ Se ka tɔgɔ Da o la ni misidaba ta dacogo faamuya ye wa?

Ni ɲininkali fla ninnu jaabi ye ko awɔ o b'a Jira ko tɔgɔ kura dalen Bɛnna sababa ma. N'u jaabi Kɛra ayi ye, o kɔrɔ ye ko fɛn kura tɔgɔ dalen ma Faamu.

misidaba = misi + daba

Daɲɛ dorokocogo: tɔgɔ + tɔgɔ Farala ɲɔgɔn kan ka tɔgɔ kelen Di.

Tɔgɔ nalen fɔlɔ (misi) ye danfaratɔgɔ ye

Tɔgɔ nalen laban (daba) ye bakuurutɔgɔ ye

Tɔgɔ in bɛ Dala minɛn min na o tɔgɔda-sababu dɔw Flɛ:

- minɛn in ɲɛci ni an bolominɛn dɔ ta bɛɛ ye kelen ye min bɛ Weele an fɛ ko daba. A n'o bɔlen tɛ ɲɔgɔn fɛ nka u ɲɛci ye kelen ye.

- minɛn in bɛ Sama misiw fɛ k'a ɲɛci Waleya, o waleyabaa ni an bolodaba kɔrɔ ta tɛ kelen ye.

bakuurutɔgɔ = daba

danfaratɔgɔ = misi

misali kumasen = misi bɛ Da daba min na k'a Sama.

Mabɛn fɛɛrɛ = baara waleyabaa + baara waleyaminɛn kan ka minɛn tɔgɔ Da.

kɔrɔko tɔgɔdon-minɛn = A ye baara waleyabaa ye min bɛ baara waleyaminɛn B Bla waleyali la

Tɔgɔdon-minɛn sugu ka ca. Miiriya kelen bɛ Se ka caman Sɔrɔ. Лɛnawolomani de bɛ Kɛ o la ni min y'i Dya k'o Ta.

Walasa tɔgɔdon-minɛnko ka Faamu a ɲɛ bɛrɛbɛrɛ ma, an bɛ a misali damadɔ Di fransɛkan ni anglɛkan ni bamanankan na. Fransɛkan na a bɛ Weele ko matrice. Anglɛkan na, a bɛ Weele ko matrix. O la, an b'an wasa Don ACCT (1985, ɲ.63) ka gafe bɔlen Guide de reccherche en lexicographie et terminologie kɔnɔmisali dɔw la.

Da

Tɔgɔdon-minɛn

misali daɲɛw

Bamanankan

fransɛkan

Anglɛkan

 

A ye B ɲɛci ye / B ye A ɲɛci ye

Takala

 

screwdriver

1

A bɛ B ka kɛta Kɛ / B bɛ A ka kɛta Kɛ

-

marteau-pilon

-

3

A ye fɛn ye B bɛ min kɔnɔ

-

carte-programme

-

4

A Dlara B bɔgɔ la / B Dlara A bɔgɔ la

manasabara/nɛgɛso

pneu-nylon

gold bracelet

5

A minɛn dɔ ye B ye / B minɛn dɔ ye A ye

-

auto-chenille

-

6

A dlalen bɛ B kama

Misidaba

siɛge-avion

-

7

A tɛ B fana tɛ / A don B fana don

kɔnɔtɛwaratɛ

homme-arraignée

spiderman

A ka c'a la, miiriya minnu bɛ tɔgɔ dali sababuya fɛn kura la ni dorokoli fɛɛrɛ ye olu ye:

- Fɛn kura ɲɛci/mago (kumaden dɔ ka kan ka Sɔrɔ dorokolen kɔnɔ min bɛ fɛn kura ɲɛci Kofɔ: wugufara, jiminfara ):

- Fɛn kura fanw tɔgɔ (kumaden dɔ ka kan ka Sɔrɔ dorokolen kɔnɔ min bɛ fɛn kura fan dɔ tɔgɔ Jira)

- Fɛn kura Dlara yɔrɔ kɛrɛnkɛrɛnnen min kama (kumaden ka kan Sɔrɔ dorokolen na min bɛ mɔgɔ Sɔmi a bɛ mago ɲɛ yɔrɔ min na)

- Fɛn kura dlalen bɛ fɛn min kɔnɔ wali fɛn min b'a kɔnɔ (kumaden dɔ ka ka k'a Jira fɛn kura yankan b'a To a bɛ Don fɛn min kɔnɔ wali fɛn min bɛ Don a kɔnɔ)

- Fɛn kura Dlara ni bɔgɔ sugu min ye (kumaden dɔ ka kan ka Sɔrɔ dorokolen na min bɛ mɔgɔ hakili Lajigin minɛn in sogo ye fɛn kelen min ye: n'a sogo ye jiri ye, mana, nɛgɛ, fara, ...).

II. Dorokoli fɛɛrɛ tali ka miiriya kura tɔgɔ Da

An bɛ n'an Sinsin tɔgɔdon-minɛn dalilu kan an ka masala in na ka tɔgɔ Лini sukaro la min kulu kɔnɔ sukaro suguya 8 bɛ yen. O suguya 8 ye miiriya kura ye bamanankan na n'u fana tɔgɔ ma Sɔrɔ fɔlɔ. U tɔgɔ Flɛ nin ye fransɛkan na: sucre = maltose, saccharose, cellulose, lactose; hexose, glucose/dextrose, fructose/levulose; pentose/ribose. Sukaro ninnu tla-tlalen don kulu ni kulu ye ni u kɔnɔ basimafɛn hakɛ dalilu ye. Kunnafoni minnu bɛ ka Di nin yɔrɔ miiriyaw kan olu Bɔra Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (bakuurugafe) 2008 kɔnɔ.

Sani an ka Se yɔrɔ jan, an b'a Fɔ ko tɔgɔdon-minɛn bɛ tali Kɛ tɔgɔda-sababu min kan k'o bɛ Se ka Caya miiriya kelen bolo. O la, tɔgɔda-sababu minnu bɛ Sɔrɔ miiriya la an bɛ olu Sɛrɛda fɔlɔ kasɔrɔ ka an Лɛnawoloma u cɛ la ka sugandilen tɔgɔdon-minɛn Jira ninka miiriya tɔgɔ Bɔ o kɔnɔ.

misali: bolifɛn sen flama Nana farafinna kɔnɔ waati min na, bɛɛ y'a tɔgɔda-sababu Kɛ fɛn ye min n'a bɛ sira la i ka tabiya kɔnɔ.

Mali kɔnɔ (bamanankan):

A tɔgɔda-sababu Kɛra: fɛn kura min ɲɛci bɛ tali Kɛ so ɲɛci kan

O tɔgɔdon-minɛn: A bɛ B ka kɛta Kɛ

O Bangera tɔgɔ min na o Kɛra: nɛgɛso (so nɛgɛlama). A bɔlen tɛ so fɛ nk'a bɛ so jɔyɔrɔ Fa yɛlɛnkan siratigɛ la.

Cinwa Aʃebe ka gafe Things fall apart (1950 ?) b'a Jir'an na ko bamanankan ka nɛgɛso tɔgɔda-sababu kelen in ye Igbow Bla k'a tɔgɔ Da ni A bɛ B ka kɛta Kɛ tɔgɔdon-minɛn kelen in ye.

Santrafrik kɔnɔ (sango):

Tɔgɔda-sababu: minɛn kura senw Dlara bɔgɔ min na n'o ye mana ye.

tɔgɔdon-minɛn: A ye B dlabɔgɔ ye ka C bakuuruba tɔgɔ Da, B ye min fan dɔ ye la.

tɔgɔ dalen: manasennma

boliikow fɛ yen:

A tɔgɔda-sababu Kɛra: sen hakɛ min b'a la (2) o faralen mɔgɔ sen hakɛ (2) kan o bɛ sen naani Di min bɛ na Teliya ni senflalataama ye.

O tɔgɔdon-minɛn: A hakɛ bɛ B ka teliya Jira

tɔgɔ dalen: sennaani (olu ka tɔgɔda-sababu ni tubabukan ta bɛ tali Kɛ ɲɔgɔn na i komin "sen teliman: minɛn ka baara nɔ/kɔla".

Lilikow fɛ yen: train

tɔgɔ dalen: mambele-ma-suka

tɔgɔda-sababu: minɛn in bɔcogo a nɔ na n'a bɛ Taa a kun fla bɛɛ fɛ

kumajago-sen talen: bisigili kɛli train ni saninkunfla cɛ o min bɛ taa i kun fla bɛɛ kan

Bamananw fɛ yen: train

tɔgɔ dalen: sisikurun

Tɔgɔda-sababu: kurun min bɛ sisi Bɔ a taatɔ

Tɔgɔdon-minɛn: A ye B ka fɛn bɔlen ye

Nimadɔn ni basidɔn jɛ ye sukaroko miiriya kalan ye. Komin an bɛ na Don sukaro n'a bɔnnaw na k'u tɔgɔ dacogo Лini bamanankan na, an b'a dɔnniya Weele fɔlɔ ko nimabasidɔn.

Sucre = sukaro, o tɔgɔ b'an bolo ka kɔrɔ, hali n'a y'a sɔrɔ ko a tɔgɔ ye daɲɛ singalen ye

Finnan den 12 bɛ sukaro minnu kɔnɔ

disaccharide / polysaccharide

- Finnan den 12 sukarow ka kulu tɔgɔ = maflasukaro / tanniflalasukaro

maltose (C12H22O11):

tɔgɔda-sabanu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ mugu la ka caya = mugusukaro

- A bɛ Dla denw ka dumuni sukaroko kama, bari a yeele ka di = densukaro / dendumuni-sukaro

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ kabamugu la ka caya = kabasukaro

 saccharose/sucrose:

Tɔgɔda-sababuw n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A dunni forobayalen don ni sukaro tɔ bɛɛ ta ye = forobasukaro

- A bɛ Bɔ sukarokala la ka caya = kalasukaro / ɲiminkala-sukaro

- A ka c'a la a ka jɛ pasi = Sukarojɛ

- A timiya ka bon ni sukaro tɔ bɛɛ ta ye = legelegesukaro / timitimi-sukaro

celulose:

Tɔgɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ jiriw ji la ka caya, a tɛ bagan caman fari la = jiriji-sukaro

- A tɛ Yeele jimafɛnw na = yeelebalisukaro

- A bɛ sɛbɛnfura Labɛn ka Kɛ kartɔn wali golo-ladegefɛnw ye = sɛbɛndla-sukaro

- A ɲɛci bɛ fini dɔw dlali la = finidla-sukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ ka wɛɛrɛ minnen Dla = minnisukaro

- A bɛ safunɛ dlafɛnw na, (i b'a ye an ka musow bɛ sɛgɛmajiriw jeni ka Kɛ safunɛlafɛnw ye togodaw la) = safunɛsukaro / sɛgɛsukaro

- A bɛ nɔrɔlanw kɛfɛnw na = nɔrɔlansukaro

- Mɛnɛnfɛn ni poronfɛn duman caman lakɛfɛn don (kɔɔrimugu min bɛ Mɛnɛn ka marifa mugu Mɛnɛn cili kama) = mɛnɛnfɛn-sukaro / poronfɛn-sukaro

 lactose:

Tɔgɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ nɔnɔ na = nɔnɔsukaro

- A ɲɛci ka bon sinminfɛnw denw baloli la = sinjisukaro

- A ɲɛci ka bon nɔɔnɔdla la = nɔɔnɔlabɛn-sukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ furakisɛlaka caman na = furakisɛ-sukaro

 Finnan den 6 bɛ sukaro minnu kɔnɔ (kunwɔɔrɔsukaro)

Monosaccharide

- Sukaro min tɛ se ka ci ka kɛ fla ye = kolokelen-sukaro 

hexose:

- finnan den wɔɔrɔ bɛ sukaro min na = wɔɔrɔlasukaro (mun wɔɔrɔla b'a kɔnɔ? finnan)

 glucose/dextrose (C6H12O6):

Tɔgɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ di nɔɔnɔ na = dinɔɔnɔ-sukaro

- A ka ca npekuden nɔɔnɔ na = npekusukaro

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ jiridennɔɔnɔ bɛɛ la = nɔɔnɔsukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ ka golo Dogi = dogolisukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ galamugu la = galasukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ farijidɛsɛ furakɛji la = fariji-sukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ sɔrɔmu ye = sɔrɔmusukaro

 fructose/levulose:

Tɔgɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ jiriden timiman bɛɛ la = jiriden-sukaro / jirinɔɔnɔ-sukaro

- A bɛ Kɛ ka dlɔ Labɛn = dlɔdonsukaro

 Finnan den 5 bɛ sukaro minnu kɔnɔ

pentose/ribose:

Tɔggɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- finnan den duuru bɛ sukaro min na = duurulasukaro

 xylose (C5H10O5):

Tɔggɔda-sababu n'o bɔnnatɔgɔ

- A tɛ Yeele mɔgɔ joli la = jolikɔn-sukaro

- Sukarodun-banatɔw ka sukaro dunta don = banabaatɔsukaro

- Bonyali bɛrɛkɛɲɛ sukaro don = bɛrɛbɛn-sukaro

- A bɛ Sɔrɔ jiri bu, kolo, fara la = jiribu-sukaro

III. Jɛkafɔ lawulikunba

Jɛkafɔ in kɛli kunba bamanankan na o ye ka daɲɛ minnu bɛ kandɔn bolofara in na "miiriya-tɔgɔda" k'olu sangadaɲɛ Sɔrɔ bamanankan na ten sa. Ka Bɔ jɛkafɔ daminɛ na ka Se a laban ma, miiriyadaɲɛ kura bi naani Sɔrɔla an fɛ bamanankan na.

Bamananw Ko ten, ko n'i ma tu Bugɔ k'i t'a kɔnɔko Dɔn. An ye miiriya-tɔgɔda dɔnniya tu Bugɔ k'a kɔnɔdaɲɛ bi naani Kɛ an dɔnfɛn ye. Dɔnniya fɛn o fɛn tigi bɛ Mali kɔnɔ, o ka kan k'a Lajɛ ka nin ɲɔgɔn jɛkafɔw Karaba Mali kan dɔ la k'a dɔnniya masina daɲɛw Koronto ka Kɛ o kan kɔnɔ. O bɛ Kɛ i n'a fɔ Kr Dukure (2008) ye bangudɔn tu Bugɔ ka Bɔ ni kòlonci (hyperbole) ni funtunci (parabole) daɲɛw ye cogo min na walima i n'a fɔ Kr Drisa Jakite (2006) ye mabɛn tu Bugɔ cogo min na ka Bɔ ni ladɔn (participe) ni kan tɔgɔrɛ (niveau de langue) ye. An ka bi daɲɛ sɔrɔlenw sɛrɛdalen Flɛ nin ye.

Tɔgɔkaraba                                         = catachrèse

siyayɛlɛma                                          = recatégorisation

kan tɔgɔrɛ*                                          = niveau de langue

ladɔn*                                                  = participe

funtunci*                                              = parabole

kolonci*                                               = hyperbole

bangudɔn*                                           = physique

kandɔn*                                               = linguistique

finnan*                                                 = carbone

miiriya-tɔgɔda                                       = taxonomie / dénomination de concept

kankabila                                             = famille de langue

kandɔnna                                             = linguiste        

ɲinini                                                    = recherche

kɔnɔminɛn                                            = élément endogɛne

farafinnakanw danfarali                          = classification des langues africaines

Mandenkan kankulu                              = langue du groupe manden

Niger-kongo kankabila                           = famille niger-congo

jɛkafɔ                                                  = conférence

tɔgɔda-fɛɛrɛ                                        = procédé de dénomination

bɔnnako                                              = dérivation

Kɔrɔlafa                                              = polysémisation

Kanhakɛ-karaba                                 = néologie tonique

siyayɛlɛma                                           = recatégorisation

tɔgɔkaraba                                          = catachrɛse

daɲɛsinga*                                          = emprunt

daɲɛ-kumaden*                                  = morphɛme lexical

kalanfoori-sɛbɛn                                  = mémoire

dorokocogo                                        = morphologie

kumaden*                                           = morphɛme

bakuurutɔgɔ                                        = déterminé

danfaratɔgɔ                                         = déterminant

kɔrɔdɔn                                               = sémantique

tɔgɔda-sababuw                                  = motivation

tɔgɔdon-minɛn                                     = matrice

wugufara                                             = schiste

jiminfara                                              = micaschiste

basimafɛn                                           = produit/élément chimique

bakuurugafe                                        = encyclopédie

Nimadɔn*                                           = biologie

basidɔn*                                             = chimie

bɔnna                                                  = dérivé

nimabasidɔn                                         = biochimie

Doolo (*) bɛ daɲɛ minnu na olu ye ɲinini wɛrɛ kɛbaaw ka daɲɛ sɔrɔlenw ye.
 
 
 
 
 

Blàdon : 2015-01-10     Yɛlɛmako laban : 2016-07-09


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