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Mamadu Dukure: Zerar DUMƐSTR ka bamanankan mabɛn bosoli

Bamanankan bosoli

Z. DUMESTR ye bamanankan mabɛn gafe kelen Bɔ 2003 sàn, k’a tɔgɔ Da « Grammaire fondamentale du bambara », ɲɛ 422. Zerar  DUMESTR  ye fransɛ kandɔnna ye min y’i Fili bamanankan bajikɛnɛ kan ni kisɛya bɛɛ lajɛlen ye.  A bɛ Fo faasi ! Nk’a  ma Taa ka fili Dàn, fili damantan.
A ka fili fɔlɔ Kɛra Fusamantiya ni tigɛnsɔnya ye ka Лɛsin Maliden kandɔnna  sanji-kɔrɔwɔɔʃiw ma.
A ka gafe dantigɛli  la, a ye nanzara ( kɛrɛnkɛrɛn ma  fransɛw) bamanankan  kanubaaw  tɔgɔ n’u ka wale Tɛrɛmɛ kabini tubabutle fo bi : Bɛnje, Abiven, Bazin, Sauvent, Labouret, Molin, Majorɛl, Moralɛs, Bayel, Delafos, M. Huis  ani ale yɛrɛ kɛ…. : ɲɛ 11. O kɛwale b’a Da kɛnɛ kan ko bamanankan kandɔn faamuya maa ʃi tɛ Sɔrɔ ni nanrarala tɛ, sabu a m’a maa ʃi Lakodɔn min ye ɲinini baara Kɛ bamanankan kandɔn kan, kàla bɛ Se ka Turu min kan. Kabini INAFLA  (Institut National d’Alphabetisation Fonctionnelle et de la Linguistique Appliquée),  ka Na Se  DNAFLA  (Direction Nationale d’Alphabétisation Fonctionnelle et de la Linguistique Appliquéɛ), ka Se ILAB  (Institut de Langue Abdoulaye Barry) ma,  ka Fàra ISH (Maaya Dɔnniyada ) ni ENSUP (Ecole Normale Supérieure) kan, kanko ɲɛɲnini Kɛra nin dakun cakɛlaw fɛ, hali n’a ma wasa Kɛ ; O tɛmɛnen kɔ, kan ɲɛɲini lasigi damadama Kɛra ka bamananan-kan sɛbɛncogo sira Bɔ ; Bɛnbakan Dungew sèn Donna nin bɛɛ la ka banankan foro Buluku, wa o ma Kɛ ni kunfin-baara ye. O bɛɛ k’i Bɔ yen, Kabini 1974 sàn, Adama Samaseku, Mamadu DUKURE ni Bubakar TRAWELE ye bamanakan mabɛn tu Tigɛ k’a Buluku bamanankan yɛrɛ la ka Se kandɔn dakun na min ɲwaan ma Deli ka Kɛ Mali furadama. Ka Tla nin  bɛɛ kɔ ka « Bamanankan Mabɛn » in Bamu fransɛkan na  (k’a tɔgɔ Da « Un aspect du génie de la langue banbara »). Yali Z.  DUMESTR tɛ nin ʃi de kàla wa, walima a ma Se ka nin ʃi de Kalan ka faamuya Sɔrɔ a la, walima a Ɲugunna nin bɛɛ la ka Tigɛ  o kan ɲɛɲini-baara la de wa?  Nin ye dɔnni na kabako belebele ye.
Z. DUMESTR ka fili flanan Kɛra k’i yɛrɛ kalalafili ko /ʃ/ ni /z/ tɛ bamanankan na, k’a Jira ko bamanankan-fɔlaw ka nconaya de y’u Sama ka Bɔ fransɛkan na ka Don bamanankan kɔnɔ : ɲɛ 21.
 Hali ni Zan ye zoro blen fini Don ka Taa jyɛn sugufyɛ bɛɛ la ni zimini ni zɛrɛ ni ʃɔ falidoni ye, an ma D’a la ni Z. Dumestr na Jɛn ni /ʃ/ ni /z/ donni ye bamanankan na.
Z. DUMESTR ka kanhakɛ-ko sorobaɲaami
Blasirali
Jyɛn kan bɛɛ n'a ka nankanma-fɛɛrɛ don k'a ka kan so Jɔ koɲuman. Fransɛkan tɛ kanhakɛma ye, nk'a ka fɛɛrɛw b'a bolo k'a ka kan Jɔ k'a Yiriwa; ʃinwakan "han" ye kanhakɛma ye, ʃinwaw ɲuman na kanhakɛ 4 ni tla de b'a la kasɔrɔ kanhakɛ 7 de bɛ wiyɛtnamkan na, ka D'a kan fana o kan fanba taaboloba ye kanɲɛ-kelen-kelenko ye, w'a  jamanadenw Bɛnn'a kan k'o kanhakɛ 7 bɛɛ Taamaʃyɛn.
Bamanankan ni soninke ye kanhakɛma ye jaati. Bamanankan kanhakɛ b'i ko flenden gwannen soninke flenba kɔnɔ. Bamanankan kanhakɛ bɛ Se ka Bisigi kanhakɛ 4 ye: daɲɛ-ko kanhakɛ 2 ani mabɛnfɛn-ko kanhakɛ 2.
O ye kanko fɛɛrɛ ye bamanankan bolo ka daɲɛw Dla, ka kan Fɛsɛsɛ k'a Jiidi, i n'a Fɔ daɲɛ-ko bɛ Jiidi cogo min a fɛ ni bɔnnako, kɔrɔko, sigiɲwaan-ko, wali siginiden-kanma samani yɛrɛ ye.
    Daɲɛ-ko kanhakɛ  yɛlɛnnen n'a jiginnen ye  fɛɛrɛ ye bamanankan bolo ka  danfara Kɛ daɲɛw cɛ ka Da kɔrɔko kan,
 A/  Daɲɛ kelenna-kanhakɛ
Misali:
                fìnì / fini  ; bàrà / bárá;  fὲrὲ / fέrέ
                tùgù / túgú (walew ko don).
Nin yɔrɔ in na, faranfasilen ni faranfasibali ʃi ko tɛ yan, sabu walew ( i n'a Fɔ tùgù / túgú ) ka sira ʃi tɛ o ko fɛ k'u To waleya jɔyɔrɔ la.
     Mabɛnfɛn-ko kanhakɛ taabolo fla ( faranfasibali kan banbannen ni faranfasilen kan suulilen ) fana ye fɛɛrɛ ye bamanankan bolo ka Na ni kɔrɔko danfara ye. Bamanankan b'o sariya Boli  tɔgɔ ani matɔgɔ (daɲɛ sugu o sugu mayɛlɛmanen ka Kɛ tɔgɔ ye) dɔrɔn de kan. An bɛ daɲɛ faranfasibali Jira ni ɲɛ blenman ye ka daɲɛ faranfasilen Kɛ ɲugubaga ye.                  
   
Misali:   
         w= wale: nr= nɔrɔnna ; mk=mankutu
    An bɛ Fɔlɔ ka misali daɲɛw kelen-kelen kanhakɛ Jira.
    Fɛn o fɛn tɛ tɔgɔ wali matɔgɔ ye, fanfasili ni fanranfabaliko t'o ma
       Taamaʃyɛn ninnu  [ a  á  à  â  ǎ] kɔrɔ ye kanɲɛ kelen-kelen bɛɛ la:                                á  kanhakɛ yɛlɛnnen   
                                   à  kanhakɛ jiginnen                       
                                   â  kanhakɛ yɛlɛnnen jiginnen
                   ǎ  kanhakɛ jiginnen   yɛlɛnnen
                                   a kanɲɛ nanama sumalen            jamana [ààà]       
                   Siginiden kɔrɔcilen ( á , ǎ ) kɔrɔ ye k'o yɔrɔ daɲɛ faranfasilen don.
 
            jamana [ààá]        dun  ( w )  
    dugu [àà]            dugu [àá]        da  (w )                                                                                                                                                                              sɛbɛ [àà]        sɛbɛ [àá]        
    da [á]            da[á]            kɛlɛ [àà]  (w)           
             nafa [àà]        nafa [àá]        sunaa [àà] (w) 
    wara [áá]        wara[áá]         jenin [àà] (w)                                         
    suruku [ááá]        suruku [ááá]        minɛ[àà] (w)         
    don [á]        don[á]                         sigi [àà] (w)
    sogo[àà]        sogo [àá]                                                                ]                         
    fɛn [á]            fɛn[á]
    cyɛn [à]        cyɛn [ǎ]
    ɲinɛ [áá]        ɲinɛ [áá]
    basa [áá]        basa[áá]
    ntúfán    [áá]        ntufan [áá] 
    wulu  [àà]        wulu [àá]
    misi [àà]        misi [àá]
    kun [à]         kun [ǎ]
    kolo [áá]        kolo[áá]
    ɲuman [àà]        ɲuman [àá]
    saga[àà]        saga [àá]
            1) Bamakɔ tɛ jamana [ààà] ye, dugu [àá] de don.
    2) ʃɔkɔrɔji tɛ dugu [àà]  ye sigida [ààá] de don.
    3) Dentaŋanin ma sɛbɛ [àà] Dɔn, a ma ɲuman [àà] Dɔn; a b'a ka                  nafa [àá] kɔni Dɔn. 
    4) Wara [áá] ma Minɛ sogoʃuhdunna [ààààá] ye, bɛɛ ye suruku [ááá]            Dɔn n'a ka sogoʃuhdun [àààá] ye
            5) Bakarijan ni Bilisi kɛlɛdon [ààá]. u Ko dá[á] bɛ Segu ye, sunaa [àà]            t'a ye.
    6) Cyɛn [à] ye ɲinέ [áá] ni basasogohjenin [áááááá] ye kɛ,
                    ntufanminɛhwuluhjenin [áááááááá] fana!
    7) Misikunkolo [ààááá]  ma Sɔrɔ; sagakunkolo [ààááá] dɔ Flɛ      
    8) Misihkunkolohjenin [àààààáá] t'an ma, an Lafiyara ni          sagakunkolojenin     [àààààáá] ye.
    9) Misihkunkolohjeninna [àààààààá] ʃi ma Sɔrɔ, 
            sagakunkolojeninna [àààààààá] dɔ sigilen Flɛ.

     Kɔlɔsi  
     An ye kanhakɛhko kunkun n'a ɲɛnɲɛn Fɛsɛfɛsɛ min b'a To  a bɛ Se ka Faamu ko J. DUMESTR ka kanhakɛ-ko ye sira Bla pew ka ŋaɲa Minɛ, ka fili damantan Sɛrɛndɛ;  a fili dɔw ye faranfasilen ni faranfasibali ni kanhakɛ yɛlɛnnen n'a jiginnen faamuya nɔɔnɔni ye. Kanhakɛ-ko yɛrɛ kuurukaara la, a Solila, a ma Taa, sabu daɲɛ sugu ʃi kanhakɛ tɛ Taamasyɛn a fɛ fo daɲɛ kanɲɛ kelennin pe, k'a tɔba To dibi la.
               An k'an hakili Latigɛ kanhakɛ kuuru sɛbɛncogo kelen kan: ka                   Bubar JARA ka kanhakɛ sariya nɔgɔn taabolo Ta ka faranfasi-                    lenko Waleya kadaw n'a kɛyɔrɔ bɛ Dàga ; a taamaʃyɛn ye ( ' ).                
                     Лɛfɔli jugu                                  Лɛfɔli ɲuman
       ɲɛ 19       seere [àa]  (temoin)                             seere' [áa.]
                        araba  [áaa ] (mercredi)                      arabá' [aaá]
                        byɛ [á] (vagin)                                       byɛ' [a]  
       ɲɛ 21       ci [ǎ] (briser)                                          ci [a]
       ɲɛ 22       sɔrɔ [àá] (obtenir)                                 sɔrɔ [aa]       h
                        gɛlɛn [àá] (difficile)                                  gɛlɛn [aa]
                        siri [àá] (attacher)                                  siri [aa]
                belebele [aaaá] ( gros)                      belebele [áaaa] = mk
                        ko [ǎ] (laver)                                          ko [a]
                        o [ǎ] (cela)                                             o [a}
                        u [ǎ] (ils)                                                 u [a]
      ɲɛ 23        bi [â] (dizaine)                                        bi  [á]
                Musa [áǎ] (Moussa)                             Musa [áá]
                        dɔrɔmɛ [áǎá]                                         dɔrɔmɛ' [áàá]
                      mangoro [áàà] (mangue)                     mangoro' [áàá] = segukafɔ
                                "       [   ? ]       "                                  "        [áaa] = bamakɔkafɔ
                       babugunin [ááǎá] (fourmilier)             babugunin' [àáàá]
                       bununkoro [áááǎ] (canard casqué)  bununkoro' [áaaa]
                       gengerenin [àááǎ] (oiseau sp.)          gengerenin' [àáàá]
                       lagosi [áàá] (mépriser)                          lagosi [áàà]
               maminɛ [ǎàá] (fiancer)                          maminɛ [áàà]
            sama [àá] (tirer)                                    sama  [aa] 
                        samasama [áàáá] (tirer à petits cps)  sama-sama [ àáàà] ²
       ɲɛ 25       kun [ǎà] (tête)                                        kun' [a]
                        sa [ǎà] (serpent)                                    sa' [a]
 
B/  Kumasen kanhakɛ-ko
       Nin ye dakabannahkuma dɔ dajiralen ye ʃarl BERD fɛ 1970 sànw tuma: "kanhakɛ jiginnen ka jurusama". J. DUMESTR y'i kùn Don o de kɔrɔ cɔ, k'o ye bamanankan dabolo dɔ ye. O subahanasariya in  ɲuman na, daɲɛ kan yɛlɛnnen fɛn o fɛn bɛ Fɔ kanhakɛ jiginnen kɔ, o bɛɛ kanhakɛ de bɛ Yuuru ka Jigin. An ma D'a la n'o dulilu in bɛ Boli jyɛn kan ʃi kan ni bamanankan tɛ.
      Misali kelen-kelen bɛɛ la, an bɛ kumasen daɲɛw kelen-kelen bɛɛ kanhakɛ Sigi fɔlɔ kasɔrɔ ka kumasen yɛrɛ kanhakɛ-ko Tɛrɛmɛ kandɔnna ninnu ɲuman na; k'o ni bamanankan lakika Saŋa.  An bɛ na ɲɛfɔli Kɛ ni nin kanbɛn ye:
                   b = kanɲɛ kanhakɛ jiginnen .
                   B = kanɲɛ kanhakɛ jiginnen min Yɛlɛnna.
                   H = kanɲɛ kanhakɛ yɛlɛnnen
                   h = kanɲɛ kanhakɛ jyɛlɛnnen min Jiginna.
 
 Misaliw:  
 ɲɛ 25
  1)   a [b] ,  ma [H],  bɔ [H]   --> { a [b] ma [h] bɔ [h] }   =  wuya 
              ..............................    -->  {a [b] ma [H] bɔ [H] }  =  lakika
                                                     {si [H] ma [H] bɔ [H] }  =      "
  2)   a [b] , ma [H] ,den [H], sɔrɔ [bH] --> {a [b] ma [h] den [h] sɔrɔ [ bb] } = wuya
       .................................................       --> {a [b] ma [H] den [H] sɔrɔ [Bb] } = lakika
 Kɔlɔsi:  Den faranfasibali de ko don yan
         
          3)   a [b], taara [ HH], den [H], sɔrɔ [ bH]
                                                    --> {a [b] taara [hh] den' [h] sɔrɔ [bb] }} = wuya
                                                    --> {a [b] taara [HH] den' [H] sɔrɔ [bb] } = lakika
  Kɔlɔsi:  Den faranfasilen de ko don yan

         4) muso' [bH] , bɛ[H], yan [b]    --> {muso' [bh] bɛ [h] yan [b]} = wuya
                                                              --> {muso' [bB] bɛ [H] yan [b]} = lakika

          5) muso [bb] , bɛ[H], yan [b]   --> {muso [bh] bɛ [h] yan [b]} = wuya
                                                            --> {muso [bb] bɛ [H] yan [b]} = lakika
 Kɔlɔsi:  - Misali 4) la muso faranfasilen don nka 5) la muso  faranfasibali don

     6) a [b],  bɛ[H], mɛn[H], kinun [Hb], ni[H], bi[b], maakɔrɔw[bBB], yɛrɛ[bH], de[b]
         la[b], ko[H], bolonkɔninden[HHHHH], kelen[HH], tɛ[H], bɛlɛ[bb], ta[b], teri[bH],di[b]

   Nin daɲɛ ninnu jɛlen ka ka kumasen ye, "kanhakɛ jiginnen ka jurusama" dalilu b'o kumasen Sɛbɛn tan:
         a[b]  bɛ[h] mɛn[h] kunun [hb] ni[h] bi[b] maakɔrɔw[bhh] yɛrɛ[bh] de[b] la[b]
         ko[h] bolonkɔninden[hhhhh] kelen[hh] tɛ[h] bɛlɛ[bb] ta[b] teri[bh]di[b].
Bamanankan lakika dun tɛ Jɛn n'o ye abada fo nin kanhakɛ cogoya in:
         a[b]  bɛ[H] mɛn[H] kunun [Hb] ni[H] bi[b] maakɔrɔw'[bBB] yɛrɛ[bH] de[b] la[b]
         ko[H] bolonkɔninden[HHHHH] kelen[HH] tɛ[H] bɛlɛ'[bB] ta[b] teri[bH]di[b].

    "kanhakɛ jiginnen ka jurusama" ye bɔgɔ Kɛ bin kan, o dɔrɔn tɛ, flanfaln b'a ko      la, o hakila datugulen Tora. Лininkali ye wajibi ye:
            Yali dalilu in bɛ kanhakɛ jiginnen Lajigin fana wa, teri olu kan jiginnen bɛ To u             cogo la? N'a y'a Sɔrɔ olu kanhakɛ bɛ To ten, o tuma kuma kan yankan bɛ Pɛtɛ;
    n'o dun tɛ, o tumu kuma bɛ Suuru ka Firi, o kɔrɔ ye kuma yɛrɛ tɛ na Mɛn taalen         ɲɛ.
    Kandɔn miirina dɔ bɛ yen ko fyɛli (assimilation fransɛkan na), anw hakili la, o de     ye maa kofɔlen ninnu Bla fili la. Cyɛn don daɲɛw dorokoli bɛ Na ni fyɛli ye, min     bɛ kanhakɛ-yɛlɛma Kofɔ, o ni faranfasibali ka fyɛli tɛ kelen ye. Wa faranfasili ka         fyɛli y'a damako ye. Kanhakɛ-yɛlɛma min bɛ ka Kofɔ nin ye, a tɛ Se Da daɲɛw     sigiɲwaan-ko kùn na: daɲɛw "nanamasumalen" sigi-sigili ɲwaan kɔ kasɔrɔ     dorokoliko wali faranfasibaliko t'a la.     
Misali:
                   misi [bb] + sogo [bb]   ----> misi [bb] sogo [BB]    (faranfasibali)
                  wara [HH] + sogo [bb]   ----> wara [HH] sogo [BB]    (faranfasibali)
                     misali 2) la, den faranfasibali ye [sɔ] kanhakɛ Fyɛn ka Yɛlɛn ka [rɔ] To            yen
     An ka nin kumasen in Kɛ ka kanhakɛ-ko kuuru Bamu ni Bubakar JARA ka        kanhakɛ-ko sariya nɔgɔn waleyali ye ani faranfasilen taamaʃyɛnni:      
         
        A Dára túlu' la k'a Dá jabá' la, kámàlén m'í Sín kó bese má Falen, jéle má Falen.
J. DUMESTR ka bamanankan sɛbɛncogo
Sɛbɛncogo  dajiralen in tɛ daliluya ʃi kelen kan, ɛlɛɛ, sagokɛ dan don! Maa o maa ye bamanankan sɛbɛnni n'a kalanni Matarafa, i bɛ D'a la ko gɛlɛyaba b'a kalanni na, ni kanhakɛ-ko ʃi ma Taamasyɛn, ka daɲɛ dorokolenw tusunnen To ɲwaan kan, wa kanhakɛ bɛ Nɔnsiyɛlɛma kuday dorokolen janw kɔnɔ. O bɛɛ la J. DUMESTR  ko ale fɛ, daɲɛ minnu ye kulu ye, dorokolen ni dorokobali bɛɛ, k'o daɲɛw bɛ Nɔrɔ mɛgɛsu, hali n'a hakɛ ka ca 10 ye. O b'a Jira ko ale mago ʃi tɛ kalanni jateminɛ na, kan sɛbɛnni-ko la .  A ka misali dɔw Flɛ:  musocamantigi,  hakilijakbɔbaara  
 A ka fɔ la, ninnu fana ka kan ka Sɛbɛn tan:
  kalandensomɔgɔtɔnkuntigidankansigi  misikunkunkolojeninnafɛteriya,...
Maa o maa ye almankan Kalan, i b'a Dɔn o kan daɲɛnw  ka jan, nka kanha- Kɛma tɛ sango biliɲaami ka Y'a la.

Blàdon : 2016-12-11     Yɛlɛmako laban : 2016-12-18


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